Micro- and nanoplastics in seafood: EFSA study
Microplastics can contain on average 4% of additives and the plastics can adsorb contaminants.
Toxicity and toxicokinetic data are lacking for both microplastics and nanoplastics for a human risk assessment.
For microplastics and nanoplastics, occurrence data in food, including effects of food processing, in particular, for the smaller sized particles (< 150 μm) should be generated. Research on the toxicokinetics and toxicity, including studies on local effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are needed as is research on the degradation of microplastics and potential formation of nanoplastics in the human GI tract.